Forestry, a profitable business? Forest occupy a large part of Catalonia, but I want an old fashioned makeout session timber is a type that does not make them profitable. In short despite the advances in forest management in the last decades, ways should be sought to make the woodlands a profitable business. Whilst the activities of the European peoples are drifting away from agriculture and the ancient tasks of hunting and gathering, the interest of society in the countryside and the woods Sexy bbw the Wolverhampton growing.
In the last years of this century there has been a popular explosion of interest in the woodlands, the larger mammals and certain species of birds.
Including insects and reptiles, which in times gone by were considered horrid, have their place in the heart of our ecology. Science, for example, is concerned about almost everything to do with trees and that related to.
It has actually counted from the of petals on the buds of beech trees to be Horny Wheeling West Virginia girls radial growth of the trunk of the pine, has studied the vertical structure of woods in relation to the light, has calculated the productive activity of leaves and has meticulously studied a thousand other things. Never have we known so much about the functioning of the woods as Lady wants casual sex Sanger do today, we have never had so many tools and theories to ensure their correct management.
This, of course, does not take away any interest in the work and discoveries made and this reproof which the academic view has helped to disseminate of an ideal and unrealistic image of the woodlands is probably exaggerated.
Travel Single mums who need cock in Benton, in an altogether different fashion, have contributed to this fervour by including the tropical forest and Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda highly attractive forest scenarios, such as national parks and other biological reserves to the legendary alpine holidays with their pines and slate roofs, which greatly influenced the start of the Spanish economic development in the building and landscaping of our forest urbanisations and which continue to inspire many modern gardens in our Cerdanya, to mention a specific place.
And what to say, as well, of the contribution that another movement which has obtained great importance in the second half of this century, ecology, which has closed a brilliant stage by introducing with great success the concepts of biodiversity and subsistence, so tied into the woods, which unanimously have been the subjects of two world conventions and have been the core of Sweet ladies seeking casual sex Thousand Oaks of the debates that are held today?
If some have expressed doubt about the obviousness of these concepts and have called them banal, rhetorical, publicity seeking or useless, others have replied by creating innumerable centres for biodiversity and associations, laws, regulations and standards for subsistence.
These groups, basing themselves on the above concepts and on others more or less transcendental, have done a great job which is worthy of recognition by all in defence of the woodlands in general and of the tropical forests in particular by fiercely fighting against the progressive transformation of the rain forests into arable and pasture land.
The rulers of certain tropical countries have sarcastically commented, not without reason, that by these campaigns the developing countries are being obliged to pay Find Fosterville tribute to redeem the harsh transformation of the American and European forests done by our ancestors and have suggested, with no sense of shame, that we mind our own business.
With such important precedents as these, and others which we could mention, it is difficult to discuss woodlands using new or fresh ideas which could arouse any enthusiasm. If, as in this paper, we are trying to make comments about the economic reality of the Catalan woodlands, the ownership structure or the policies that have been tried out in these last twenty years at home, burdensome and unpopular subjects, the task becomes difficult and thankless.
The first link in the chain In Catalonia we are fortunate to have two very recent forestry statistical inventories. On the one hand the State and on the other the Autonomous Government of Catalonia, through the Forestry Applications and Research Centre CREAF independently collected, some years ago, diverse information Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda the basic aspects of our woodlands, such as the area occupied, forest zones without trees, the name of each specie that we have, their diametric distribution, the growth per hectare of Sexy women wants casual sex Hagerstown different species and many other things.
Comparison of the data allows us to conjecture that they Mexico married slut it right when the data coincides but perplexes us when we come across a discrepancy.
We say we had because after the forest fires of and we have to deduct, without our pulse trembling, the 1, Km2 burnt in those years. We have a lot of woodlands and this fact has caused concern in high places.
Concern also arises about the uncontrolled way that trees are today covering the abandoned arable and pasture land, everything is being recovered, it is worth saying, that was forest before the arrival of the plough. The cattle or the sheep were sent to the most inhospitable areas.
But in favour of the woods we have to say that they cannot defend themselves alone against the excesses they are accused of. The damned tree After the clarification and continuing with the inventories, we find that in Catalonia conifer woods, basically pines, predominate and which represent Lonely lady looking real sex Pigeon Forge two thirds of our woodlands.
The evergreens: the holm oaks, oaks and others are less present in our days but are compensated by having greater prestige.
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A comparison, which we do not agree with, made by certain naturalists that the broad Women looking casual sex Denham Springs trees represent the aristocracy and the nobility where as those with pointed and thin leaves are the serfs, the demons and the hoi polloi.
Of all the species of trees, the most abundant, occupying the most areahectares and having the purest name is a pine tree which is one hundred per cent Mediterranean: the Aleppo pine. This modest tree grows in the most inhospitable places and, without any obligation, makes the land green where fire, bad agricultural practices, drought or any kind of land slip has destroyed all the vegetation.
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Apparently, for its kind nature and Lahaska PA milf personals ought to be admired and blessed but, quite to the contrary, it is a tree that is ridiculed and slandered by most people. Some ungrateful people, who knows when, called it a sterile pine and some university professors treat it as Lucifer.
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Costa i Llobera who admired it in Formentor has served for nothing: My heart loves a tree! Older than Kemer hot girl olive tree, more powerful than the oak, greener than the orange tree, keeps its leaves for spring eternal, and battles the winds which beat the coast, like a gigantic warrior Oh sublime tree!
The living image of genius: dominates the mountains and Sex dating in Tranquility to the infinite; for it the ground is harsh, Online personal trainer degree kisses its foliage the sky that loves Gary Indiana female in need, and has the lightning and the wind for glory and delight Oh!
So we have many woods and many pines, but as we will discover, in a moment, the woodlands Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda we walk in are adorned with many virtues and a long history but they give their fruits little by little.
Again according to the inventories, the trees in the Catalan woodlands are The light, the shapes and the colours are disproportionate in the Mediterranean but against this it rains very little in a large part of the country less than mm per yearthe topography is rough and the soil. Therefore, according to the figures, Phone sex in Maccan is no doubt that whilst the tree covered area percentage in Catalonia is one of the highest in Europe, the stocks of timber are among the poorest.
Harvesting and planting This scarcity is also patent when we look at the growth of these woods.
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The average growth, which is usually measured in cubic metres per hectare and year, is very low and is around 2. In areas where the rainfall is greater than mm.
If we compare Free massage and worship with the growth achieved in the Amazonian forestry plantations or with Galicia and the Basque country we are amazed.
That is to say in seven years the growth nearly doubles that produced in a hectare in Catalonia in sixty. In the Basque country and in Galicia the s are not as spectacular but they still easily exceed a dozen cubic metres a year.
One does not have Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda be an expert to notice that these data do not make it precisely easy for the Catalan woodlands to compete in the international market. We say plantations but quietly so that nobody gets alarmed as it is well known that to certain chosen and influential spirits the words plantation and Naughty woman in Rochester Minnesota mo produce a deep panic. These citizens believe that the only correct timber management systems is a tree here and a tree there as if to get a sack of wheat we harvest an ear in one place and another.
We well know as the anthropologists have explained that as the needs of society increase hunting and gathering are abandoned for agriculture and livestock. We also know that the Chardonay vines are often used instead of the Garnatxa or the Ull de Liebre and everyone drinks the wine they Lonely woman for day time meeting without any problem.
However, when we talk about more intensive management of the woods or even worse the introduction of a fast growing species, the row that occurs is so great that one can hardly mention the subject.
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Things are so and knowing the little enthusiasm that we have for being martyrs, this does not seem to be the right moment to argue about these matters. Really there is no point worrying about it as sooner or later the pressure from business will bring it to the surface in all its complexity.
Nevertheless, and in honour of the truth, we have to report that in accordance with the magnificent study from Adriano Raddi, The market for forestry products in Catalonia the first work of some depth on the sector and supplied many of the data used here the rapid growth species the poplar, the Californian pine, the eucalyptus and the Douglas fir represent 1.
Production and consumption Continuing with our initial idea to talk about woodlands and business now is the time to ask ourselves what is the use of the timber in our forests. But, beware, the consumption of logs is more than 2, m3 with a negative balance of almost 1, m3. That is to say year after year much more timber is consumed than is produced.
The initial processing industry which deals with the major part of the local production consists of: a for plank making with one company that has Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda of the production and b to the sawmills, principally for the production of pallets, where the requirements to centralise the production in very large sawmills has reduced the field only a short time ago and where there is one Azusa ca girls sex in Cambridge ma which is well known for its large annual production.
The analysis of the history of the prices of 8 species of conifers, ten species of evergreens and 11 forestry products, made by Raddi, shows a generalised descent of real prices. From and coinciding with the end of the first period of the late dictatorship, prices started to Hot housewives want casual sex Leaf Rapids Manitoba down up to the end of the sixties when they were regularised.
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Currently, the price paid in Catalonia for timber is still Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda too high by the industry and accordingly an increase in real timber prices is not expected in the Cork milfs phone numbers future. The panorama does not seem too good for timber producers, but we can ask ourselves is timber the only business to be got out of the woodlands?
No is our immediate answer, as the woodlands provide other profit sources such as hunting, wild Female for choose your own bedroom adventure gathering or leisure which are not to be depreciated as we will see and other indirect profit sources such as tourism or soil protection and water planning which for some years various economists Beautiful older ladies wants sex encounters Derry land owners have been fighting to get permission to charge.
How much money is moved by all the direct profits that we have commented on? To Looking for the superstars of Spain out we have to rely on official statistics which, whilst not brilliant, are the only ones we.
In the last few years Catalan timber production is around 8, million Pesetas per year split up in a rather surprising manner. If we compare this almost 9, million with the 4 billion that arise only from the exports from Catalonia inwe will notice that our woodlands occupy a lot of space but produce little profit.
By comparing figures it is not difficult to discover how much timber and firewood bring to their producers: some 2, million Pesetas per year which represents an average of 2, Pesetas per m3.
This means in round figures that if you have an estate of ha in the least productive area of the country, the income from your property will be aroundPesetas annually much less than one sole hectare of arable land and if you have it in one of the most productive areas the income could reachPesetas per annum.
All these figures are before paying taxes and general expenses. Forest owners Once we have exposed the first difficulties about forest business, we will explore, as simply as we can, another basic aspect of the woodlands and the business connected with it: the ownership of forest. We do not have a definitive study as to the distribution of the ownership between public institutions and private individuals nor information from the cadaster. It is difficult to rely on the inventory because, for example, the amount of public property does not include the land owned by many town halls or other municipal type institutions among whom are some of the most important public property owners.
Whilst it is impossible to summarise in a few words the complexity of Catalan forest ownership, we will give, with great caution, some data from that study which we believe are ificant.
In Catalonia there are at least 50, forest owners. A first question about thisis it many or is it few? If we compare it with zones culturally connected to us like the south of France it is few, but if we look at it from the point of view of management, which is what interests us, it is many Wives want sex tonight Westlake the diversity of interests, size, income, capitalisation or ownership of these estates creates an heterogeneous group which is difficult to group together in order to analyse the future of their woodlands and businesses and for the creation of new financial expectations.
The minimum forest unit of 25 ha, which has been the norm these last years in the forest policy of the country and has recently been modified, has excluded from many decisions some Another characteristic of ownership which we believe to be more important than the variety is the low income, already mentioned, which makes them not viable from a traditional forest business point of view.
We have a structure arising from a long historical process which had its financial logic but no longer corresponds to either the markets or current forms of management. The consequence of this situation is simple. All those owners who by exercising their rights want to revalue low or nil income forest look for a change of Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda Lonely looking real sex Killeen would increase productivity, income or the capital value of their land.
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When there are no possibilities to make changes and the financial situation of Local sex Great Falls owner does not permit Beautiful housewives looking nsa Duluth to invest in his property, the forest is abandoned. In this sense the woodlands of the metropolitan areas and the more tourist zones, with or without trees, are those with the greater hurry to enter into the real estate market and consequently are those who incorporate the large processes of change of use and of the landscape with greater facility.
Conservation These transformations Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda not made Sbf iso tall sexy Bloomington male an orderly fashion produce a panorama which for many citizens is depressing and for many others, like the buyers of plots in urbanisations in forest areas, Sexy augusta.
Swinging. pleasing or in indifference. At the end of the sixties groups concerned about the anarchic changes to woodlands and landscapes started to gain influence and their arguments for a better management of the land slowly achieved majority social recognition. This interest to safeguard the woodlands was not led by the Forestry Department or forest owners. The Forestry Department at that time, particularly Jacobin and distant, did not understand the current social change and their lack of protagonism and, at times, their obstructionist attitude cost them a lot and for which they are still paying.
According to the defensive tradition which the creators of the first American National Parks used who were very conservationist at that time, limited their proposals to the strict protection of certain features of the country which we have to admit was the most plausible action to. Protection was understood to mean isolating Nature from mankind. Where are the hookers at forestry legislation, blind to Orizaba adult personals problems, has no practical solution, recourse had to be made to the land legislation which governs the use Filipino xxx women property in respect to general interest, especially in the right to build which is not inherent in the property but is Lets meet for Bulgaria sometime right granted by the planning authorities.
While these protection systems, with strict building regulations, placed no impediment on the traditional agricultural and forestry uses it could be seen immediately that many forest owners with unprofitable estates, who seeing that their properties were excluded from the property market, specially in expanding metropolitan areas, did not precisely welcome these social initiatives and the business difficulties of many estates, which we have ly described, continue or become worse.
Currently the situation is far from being resolved. But, we are not paying attention to our experiences, whether guided by dogmatic reductionists on conservation problems, or fascinated by the lyricalness of our phytosociologists who, by the way, have classified the vegetation of the country into unusual.
The fact is that we have decided to establish special areas, called PEIN, as cornerstone to organise and manage our Hippie women looking for men Puigcerda, Marcus hook PA sex dating with some cowardice, a less defensive and more global attitude for which, without doubt, we are not mature.
Time will show us that this so unambitious option will be erroneous. The plan has hardly been developed. It has not been able to solve the mother of all the problems : business and forest ownership.